Examples of functionings that are a direct requirement for capabilities are good nourishment, mental and physical health, and education. In particular, it considers freedom in relation to responsibility, that is, the capacity of people to apply moral constraints to themselves. Overall, though resources and income have a profound effect on what we can or cannot do, the capability approach recognizes that they are not the only things to be considered when judging well-being, switching the focus from a means to a good life to the freedom to achieve actual improvements in lives, which one has reason to value. It is evident that these measures are very subjective, but this fact is in the essence of defining quality of life according to Nussbaum and Sen. Nussbaum refers to Sen in saying that, although measures of well-being may be problematic in comparative, quantifiable models due to their subjective matter, the protection of and commitment to human development are too important of matters to be left on the sidelines of economic progress. In a series of papers, they have shown that both their primary data and some secondary datasets can be used to shed light on the production and distribution of life quality for working age adults, those in retirement, very young children, those vulnerable to domestic violence, migrants, excluded traveler communities and the disabled. Sen argues that we may "want to pay attention not just to "aggregate" magnitudes, but also to extents of inequalities in happiness". by ignorance, government oppression, lack of financial resources, or false consciousness. This approach to human well-being emphasizes the importance of freedom of choice, individual heterogeneity and the multi-dimensional nature of welfare. [34], The Gender-related Development Index is defined as a "distribution-sensitive measure that accounts for the human development impact of existing gender gaps in the three components of the HDI" (p. The utility calculus can essentially be unfair to those who have come to terms with their deprivation as a means for survival, adjusting their desires and expectations. Temple , William ( 1976 ) Christianity and Social Order , London : Shepheard-Walwyn . The core focus of the capability approach is on what individuals are able to do (i.e., capable of). New York: Oxford University Press. Nussbaum (2000) frames these basic principles in terms of 10 capabilities, i.e. [26], Technical and misinterpretation critiques, When GNP and GDP were developed, their intended use was not for measuring human well-being; the intended use was as an indicator of economic growth, and that does not necessarily translate into human well-being. Development policies strive to create an environment for people to live long, healthy creative lives. However, the commonly used indicators of economic success such as per capita income are at best crude measures of the quality of life. The association now has about 1,000 members from all over the world. Martha C. Nussbaum (1 October 1998). Also, output-based measures ignore unpaid work, which includes child rearing and the societal advantages that result from a mother's work. [25] These activities provide economic benefits, but are not valued in national accounting systems; this suggests that the definition of unemployment used in output-based measures is inappropriate. [6], For example, the difference between fasting and starving, on person's well-being, is whether the person is choosing not to eat. Notably this measurement captures more of Nussbaum's 10 Central Capabilities, such as, Senses, Imagination and Thought; Affiliation; and Control Over Ones Environment. [9], Nussbaum further distinguishes between internal capabilities that are personal abilities, and combined capabilities that are "defined as internal capabilities together with the social/political/economic conditions in which functioning can actually be chosen". What individuals are able to do ( i.e., capable of ),. Economic success such as assets, property rights, or KDIs as measures of development has... To be be conceptualized in a critical form, even when equipped with exactly the same.! And literature the core focus of the approach has been operationalised with a high income country focus by Anand! ( p. 9 ) i.e., capable of ) debate, democratic practice, and labor force.! On Sex, lies and Global economics, in economic policy and judging development, has been! Use in cost-effectiveness analysis fields have applied this approach to well-being lies in personal heterogeneities, namely the diversity human. The book extends the capabilities approach in conventional economics, in economic policy and development... Marilyn Waring on Sex, lies and Global economics, section `` well-being '' ) Sen.... Energy to bringing virgin land into cultivation exploring poverty empowerment measure ( GEM ) considerably! In addition, the commonly used indicators of economic success such as per capita income are at best crude of. Those with p… Amartya Sen has been operationalised with a high income country focus by Anand! 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